Eber Sáez Tarea 2 - Módulo investigación T1 2019

De Casiopea



TítuloMoldaje flexible, nuevas formas para una arquitectura sustentable.
AsignaturaMódulo Investigación T1 2019
Del CursoMódulo Investigación T1 2019
CarrerasArquitectura
2
Alumno(s)Eber Sáez

Fichas de lectura

Ficha 1
Título The Fabric Formwork Book
Autor Mark West
Año 2017
Editorial Routledge
Tipo Libro
Resumen Libro que brinda de manera exhaustiva todo lo relacionado con estructuras en base a moldajes flexibles.
Citas
  1. "Concrete has next to no opinion about its shape; a wet, heavy, gloppy material, it will take any shape you give it, so long as you can hold it still for a few hours (Schjeldahl 1992). Its plasticity suggests that it might take an extraordinary variety of forms – so how did such an amorphous material end up as so many rectangular solids and cylinders? "(p.4)
  2. " In a flexible mould, concrete is rediscovered as a wet, sensual, and responsive material. Its relationship to its mould is no longer passive, but an active one in which concrete’s plasticity and weight play a particular and crucial role in determining its final shape."
  3. " In many examples, no skilled labor or sophisticated equipment are needed. As the fabric is lightweight, compact, cheap, and reusable, fabric formworks offer savings in the amount of form-and falsework material consumed, and thus in terms of transportation, storage, construction waste, and labor. "(p.34)
  4. "Concrete changes its color (darker or lighter) depending on how much water is retained at the surface of the casting (see Figure. 4.4, p. 57). When a permeable fabric is used to cast concrete panels, some of the excess mix water will bleed through the fabric. As previously mentioned, this can significantly improve the surface quality and appearance of the concrete. However, if the water loss is not even across the mould-face, the concrete will cure with a lighter color where more water was lost, and will be relatively darker where more water was retained at the surface of the cast."(p.198)
  5. "There are many benefits associated with the use of flexible textile formworks compared to rigid formwork, most notably
  • formwork is lighter and easier to construct
  • more complex geometries are possible, which can lead to much more structurally efficient elements
  • improved concrete finish – the permeable nature of textiles reduces surface defects and produces a harder, more durable surface (see Malone (1999) and Orr et al. (2012))
  • a wide variety of new and exciting architectural forms and finishes are possible."
Ficha 2
Título Encofrados flexibles, otra forma para el hormigón
Autor David Jolly, Miguel Eyquem, Victoria Jolly
Año 2011
Sección ARQ 78 Extranjeros, p. 58-67
Editorial Ediciones ARQ (Santiago)
Tipo Artículo de revista
Resumen Este artículo es relevante ya que da cuenta de las primeras experiencias con encofrados flexibles en Ciudad Abierta y sienta las bases para los posteriores estudios en el taller de obra. Se cuenta sobre la experiencia colaborativa entre la Escuela de Arquitectura PUCV y el CAS con Mark West como principal representante. Además se exponen algunas obras realizadas por la escuela relacionadas con el uso de moldaje flexible.
Citas
  1. "En los encofrados flexibles, la argamasa del hormigón es contenida por una combinación de elementos rígidos soportantes y una membrana que solo resiste tracciones. De este modo, al recibir la masa del hormigón, la membrana la contiene y adopta automáticamente una forma gravitacional. Este es un hecho mecánico que, en igualdad de condiciones, genera la misma forma y, por tanto, es gobernable."
  2. "...el armado del encofrado y su llenado se realizan en un breve periodo de tiempo, lo que se puede sintetizar en una dimensión: bajo costo del encofrado y eficiente operabilidad en relación con la forma compleja que se obtiene."
  3. "El postulado básico que está detrás de esta investigación en conjunto, entre la Escuela de Arquitectura y Diseño de la PUCV y CAST, es que los modelos a escala realizados con encofrados flexibles mantienen con variaciones mínimas su comportamiento a escala natural; es decir, es posible construir la forma que se obtiene en un pequeño modelo de yeso en una escala mayor con hormigón."
  4. "En cuanto a una propiedad formal –que se puede calificar de subjetiva, pero aun siendo así no deja de tener cierto valor–, los cuerpos formados por planos de doble curvatura se asocian fácilmente a una estructura de orden orgánica, es decir, se vinculan visualmente como partes de un organismo. Este hecho hace que la forma se perciba como menos invasiva, menos agresiva y, por lo tanto, más armónica con los entornos naturales y artificiales de los espacios urbanos."
  5. " La simplicidad del diseño del encofrado y la posibilidad de emplearlo muchas veces, permite constatar que se está ante una tecnología de bajo costo en relación con la calidad formal del objeto que se obtiene."
Ficha 3
Título Evolutionary Optimization of Fabric Formed Structural Elements
Autor Diederik Veenendaal
Año 2008
Editorial Delft University of Technology
Tipo Tésis de Magitster
Resumen Como el uso de programas computacionales puede contribuir al desarrollo de estructuras en moldajes flexibles. De este documento se puede saber hasta que punto puede ayudar y donde están las limitantes de estas mejoras.
Citas
  1. " Fabric formwork is – simply speaking – the casting of concrete in prestressed polymer fabric. This method allows very different geometries than those typically associated with concrete element cast in conventional molds. Through an interaction of the supports of the fabric, its non-linear material properties, the applied prestressing and the pressures of the fresh concrete, an equilibrium arises that determines the shape of the final product.." (p.13)
  2. "The inherent difficulties in predicting the geometry of the fabric formed elements, as well as the potential of fabric formwork to produce new and interesting shapes posed intriguing questions. "(p.13)
  3. "When fabric formwork is used, a flat sheet of fabric is filled with concrete. The fluid pressures of the concrete are balanced out by the prestressing forces on the outer edges of the flat sheet. The contours of the concrete element are determined by the edge mold, which doubles as a kind of pulley in the sense that it changes the direction of the applied forces. Either a horizontal plane of plywood, or steel pipes, have been used as an edge mold."(p.94)
  4. "Another aspect often considered is cost. Naturally the cost is implicitly taken into account by the attempt to minimize concrete volume. However, the actual cost of fabric forming is also dependant on the mold which consists of solid timber or steel parts and fabric. The amount of these materials is dependant on the type of mold technique (spline, keel or pinch), the weight of the concrete and the size and location of the prestressing forces. Once fabric forming progresses towards full-scale production and economies of scale are attained, insight can be gained in expected investments i.e. material and labor costs. At that point, cost can be included in the optimization as well." (p.164)
Ficha 4
Título Flexible formwork for concrete structures
Autor John Orr
Año 2012
Editorial University of Bath
Tipo Tésis (Ph.D.)
Resumen Este trabajo catalóga al hormigón como uno de los materiales de construcción más utilizados en el mundo y ademas hace una comparativa entre encofrados rígidos y flexibles destacando una mayor sustentabilidad de los moldajes flexibles..
Citas
  1. "... replacing conventional orthogonal moulds with a flexible system comprised primarily of high strength, low cost fabric sheets, the fluidity of concrete can be utilised to create structurally optimised concrete structures. Flexible formwork therefore has the potential to facilitate the change in design and construction philosophy that will be required for a move towards a less material intensive, more sustainable, construction industry." (p.i)
  2. "Construction using fabric formwork may thus range from simple sheets of fabric secured on timber battens, reinforced with bent steel bars right through to three dimensionally woven fabric formed bags using advanced composites that may become a feasible alternative to the CNC machining of complex formwork shapes" (p.17)
  3. "The costs of conventional reinforced concrete construction generally associated with timber formwork (transport, storage and maintenance) may be reduced when fabric formwork is used, as evidenced by the projects presented above. Large volumes of timber may be required in conventional construction to resist the lateral loads generated by wet concrete during pouring and to provide a flat finished surface. In fabric formed structures, there is no desire for flat surfaces and hence this lateral force need not be resisted. Instead, the fluid pressures are used to create the desired shape." (p.21)
  4. "Fundamental to the design processes utilised in previous research has been the understanding that the resulting optimised element will consume less material than one designed as a prismatic member. Such savings in material use are taken in addition to those that arise by virtue of the simplified construction process (§2.3.5 on page 21). Previous research in which fabric cast elements have been designed and structurally tested (as is described in greater detail in §2.5) has allowed comparisons between the material use of the optimised element and that of a prismatic structure with the same ultimate load capacity to be made."(p.27)