Visualización Gráfica

De Casiopea


Asignatura(s)Gráfica Digital
Año2008
Tipo de CursoRamo Lectivo
TalleresDG 4º
ProfesoresHerbert Spencer
AlumnosSarah Contreras, Elizabeth Toro, Manuela del Pino, Romina Guerra, Claudia Ortiz, Diego Oyarzún, Evelyne Ramirez, Estefanía Suárez, Carolina Venergas, Damari Vergara, Mª Angélica Geisse, Christian Campos, Felipe Klaue, Consuelo Pivcevic, Paulina Delgado
Palabras Clavevisualización, notación gráfica
Carreras RelacionadasDiseño Gráfico

Introducción

Este curso se origina desde la pregunta: ¿cómo se ve la información? o más específicamente: ¿qué narrativas están cifradas en un determinado corpus de información?. En este sentido, nos preguntamos por las correspondencias entre las dimensiones cuantitativas o cualitativas intrínsecas a la información con sus representaciones visuales; ¿cómo se determina esta relación biyectiva entre la información y el relato visual? ¿cuál es el lenguaje de aparición de la información?

Específicamente en el ámbito digital esta pregunta adquiere otras connotaciones: ¿cómo podemos diseñar algoritmos computacionales que construyan las correspondencias visuales independientes de un caso particular e idiosincrático que nos permita examinar un flujo de información? o ¿qué criterios (y competencias) debemos desarrollar para manipular información dinámica?

Objetivos

  • Introducir a los alumnos a la problemática de la visualización computacional
  • Formar la capacidad de recolectar datos, filtrarlos y aplicar "data mining" sobre los mismos (en el PDE Processing)
  • Formar la capacidad de hacer preguntas pertinentes a partir de un corpus de datos determinado, preguntas que permitan la emergencia de narrativas visualmente interesantes y reveladoras a partir de estos datos
  • Discriminar la pertinencia de los distintos lenguajes gráficos en relación a los datos

Metodología

Este curso está pensado como una extensión del módulo de primer año diseño Imágen Digital y considera las materias tratadas en este módulo como pre requisito para asistir a este seminario pues se avanza sobre los conocimientos básicos de programación gráfica ofrecidos en ese curso.

En cuanto a la metodología específica de la visualización, este curso se apoya fuertemente en el modelo de Ben Fry en su tesis doctoral Computational Information Design:

  1. Adquisición de datos: Recolección y catastro de datos dinámicos y cambiantes
  2. Análisis de datos: (eng: Parsing) Formateo de datos de acuerdo al uso
  3. Filtración de datos: Automatización de procesos manuales tediosos
  4. Data mining: Modificación de parámetros estadísticos
  5. Representación: Elección y diseño del lenguaje visual, prototipado
  6. Refinación: Cambio de las leyes de representación
  7. Interacción: Transición contínua entre los diversos estados o puntos de vista alternativos

Referencias

Data.gov

http://www.data.gov

Portal de la administración norteamericana en que se publican en formatos estándares los datos generados por distintas agencias gubernamentales. As a priority Open Government Initiative for President Obama's administration, Data.gov increases the ability of the public to easily find, download, and use datasets that are generated and held by the Federal Government. Data.gov provides descriptions of the Federal datasets (metadata), information about how to access the datasets, and tools that leverage government datasets. The data catalogs will continue to grow as datasets are added. Federal, Executive Branch data are included in the first version of Data.gov.

UN Data

http://data.un.org/

Servicio de acceso a los datasets de la División Estadística de las Naciones Unidas. The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) has launched a new internet-based data service for the global user community. It brings UN statistical databases within easy reach of users through a single entry point (http://data.un.org/) from which users can now search and download a variety of statistical resources of the UN System.

Public Resource

http://public.resource.org/

Fundación que se dedica a facilitar el acceso a través de Internet a documentos gubernamentales que pertenecen al dominio público pero que no son fáciles de encontrar. Fundada por Carl Malamud, uno de los más veteranos activistas en pro del open data institucional. Public.Resource.Org is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation dedicated to publishing and sharing public domain materials in the United States.[1] It was founded by Carl Malamud and is based out of Sebastopol, California. Their motto is “Making Government Information More Accessible”. As of 2008[update], the organization operated on an annual budget of around US$1 million, most of which was spent on acquiring the rights to and scanning public works.

Open Secrets

http://www.opensecrets.org/

Base de datos de donaciones a partidos políticos en Estados Unidos. Tras más de 20 años de trabajo, este año han abierto su base de datos y la han hecho completamente descargable y accesible, gracias al apoyo de la Sunlight Foundation.

OpenSecrets.org is your nonpartisan guide to money’s influence on U.S. elections and public policy. Whether you’re a voter, journalist, activist, student or interested citizen, use our free site to shine light on your government. Count cash and make change.

District of Columbia Data Catalog

http://data.octo.dc.gov/

La ciudad de Washington DC ha sido pionera en crear un repositorio de datasets generados por los distintos departamentos municipales, en formatos estándares y que fomentan su utilización en el desarrollo de aplicaciones y visualizaciones For years the District of Columbia has provided public access to city operational data through the Internet. Now the District provides citizens with the access to 291 datasets from multiple agencies, a catalyst ensuring agencies operate as more responsive, better performing organizations. Use the data catalog below to subscribe to a live data feed in Atom format and access data in XML, Text/CSV, KML or ESRI Shapefile formats


Organizaciones, Iniciativas y Grupos de Interés

Sunlight Foundation

http://www.sunlightfoundation.com/

Fundación que quiere promover la transparencia gubernamental a través de la puesta a disposición en Internet de recursos y aplicaciones que permitan a los ciudadanos investigar y conocer más a fondo la acción de gobierno.

The Sunlight Foundation was co-founded in 2006 by Washington, DC businessman and lawyer Michael Klein and longtime Washington public interest advocate Ellen Miller with the non-partisan mission of using the revolutionary power of the Internet to make information about Congress and the federal government more meaningfully accessible to citizens. Through our projects and grant-making, Sunlight serves as a catalyst for greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government. Sunlight’s ultimate goal is to strengthen the relationship between citizens and their elected officials and to foster public trust in government. We are unique in that technology and the power of the Internet are at the core of every one of our efforts.

Our work is committed to helping citizens, bloggers and journalists be their own best government watchdogs, by improving access to existing information and digitizing new information, and by creating new tools and Web sites to enable all of us to collaborate in fostering greater transparency. Since our founding in the spring of 2006, we have assembled and funded an array of web-based databases and tools including OpenCongress.org, FedSpending.org, OpenSecrets.org, EarmarkWatch.org and LOUISdb.org. These sites make millions of bits of information available online about the members of Congress, their staff, legislation, federal spending and lobbyists.

Apps for Democracy

http://www.appsfordemocracy.org/

Concurso de desarrollo de aplicaciones ciudadanas basados en los datos públicos puestos a disposicion por el Catálogo de Datos de la ciudad de Washington DC.

In the fall of 2008, DC’s Office of the Chief Technology Officer asked iStrategyLabs how it could make DC.gov’s revolutionary Data Catalog useful for the citizens, visitors, businesses and government agencies of Washington, DC. The Data Catalog contains all manner of open public data featuring real-time crime feeds, school test scores, and poverty indicators, and is the most comprehensive of its kind in the world.

Our solution was to create Apps for Democracy – a contest that cost Washington, DC $50,000 and returned 47 iPhone, Facebook and web applications with an estimated value in excess of $2,600,000 to the city.

Now, DC wants to hear citizens’ ideas about problems that could be solved through technology, as well as their ideas about the perfect system to receive feedback and service requests. Through blog posts, email surveys, video testimonials, voice call-in captures, twitter update submissions, and in-person town halls, iStrategyLabs will seek to engage the populace of Washington, DC to ask for their input into what they’d like to see in the form of a DC Community Platform.

Our goal is to receive insight from at least 5000 citizens of Washington, DC in a week period beginning May 4th (submit your insights here). iStrategyLabs will produce a citywide “Social Citizen Sunday” event on May 17th, during which people will be encouraged to capture insights from their neighbors. The team that captures the deepest and broadest insights possible will be rewarded with a $1000 “Social Citizen Award” and public recognition incentives for their participation.


DIY City

http://diycity.org/

Iniciativa que pretende abrir y hacer públicos e interoperables los datos generados por los servicios e infraestructuras urbanas (horario y posición de redes de transporte, datos de consumo eléctrico y de agua...), con el fin de que se puedan desarrollar aplicaciones de abajo arriba por los ciudadanos.

DIYcity: How do you want to reinvent your city?

Our cities today are relics from a time before the Internet. Services and infrastructure, created and operated by the government, are centrally managed, non-participatory and closed. And while this was once the best (and only) way for cities to operate, today it leads to a system that is inefficient, increasingly expensive to maintain, and slow to change.

What is needed right now is a new type of city: a city that is like the Internet in its openness, participation, distributed nature and rapid, organic evolution - a city that is not centrally operated, but that is created, operated and improved upon by all - a DIY City.

This is the DIYcity Challenge: can we, working together, define and build a version 1.0 of the Do-It-Yourself City, a city that operates on open data flowing through decentralized, open source tools, that actively engages residents not only as users but as participants and owners of the system?

Can we build this not only for our own individual cities, but for cities everywhere? Can we build an open toolset that any city, anywhere in the world, can access, modify to suit their needs, and deploy on their own terms?

Can we build this in one year? In six months? In three months?

Shall we get started?


My Society

http://www.mysociety.org/

Organización Británica pionera en desarrollar proyectos en Internet que facilitan la participación ciudadana en procesos de governanza, y hacen transparentes procesos institucionales. Iniciativas como They Work for You (una base de datos indexada de todas las intervenciones de los Miembros del Parlamento Británico) o Fix My Street (servicio para comunicar incidencias y problemas en la calle a las autoridades locales) son referentes esenciales para los discursos sobre Gobierno Abierto y Transparencia.

mySociety is a community of volunteers and (paid) open source coders.

mySociety runs most of the best-known democracy and transparency websites in the UK, sites like TheyWorkForYou and WriteToThem (which way back in the dawn of time was called FaxYourMP).

mySociety is a not-for-profit company that builds websites of a democratic bent for other people, such as the No 10 Downing Street Petitions Website, for the Prime Minister’s Office

mySociety has two missions. The first is to be a charitable project which builds websites that give people simple, tangible benefits in the civic and community aspects of their lives. The second is to teach the public and voluntary sectors, through demonstration, how to use the internet most efficiently to improve lives.

TheyWorkForYou, WriteToThem (which used to be called FaxYourMP) and FixMyStreet are all examples of the type of service that we aim to foster. But it is exactly the rarity of such really useful, effective, cheap civic sites that led to mySociety’s creation.

mySociety was founded in September 2003. We spent the first year raising money and soliciting the public and each other for ideas. Our first funding arrived in September 2004, at which point we started working furiously, launching WriteToThem, PledgeBank and HearFromYourMP all before the end of 2005. In 2006 we built and launched the No 10 Downing Street Petitions Website and FixMyStreet. In 2008, we’ve launched WhatDoTheyKnow and started the FreeOurBills campaign.


Proyectos y Aplicaciones

European Parlament Votes

http://epvote.eu/

Aplicación que registra y permite rastrear los votos de cada europarlamentario a lo largo de una legislatura completa, su grado de implicación en la actividad parlamentaria y sus posturas ante determinados temas.

EP Vote tracks the votes in the European Parliament. It is an innovative tool for anyone who wants to know more about the EU legislation and the MEPs’ votes; it gives an overview of the voting, according to the country, political groups and MEPs.

We provide indispensable information for anyone who is doing research, writing, analyzing or simply interested in lawmaking at the EU level.


Stamen Travel Time Maps

http://stamen.com/clients/mysociety

Visualización de Stamen realizada para MySociety que representa el precio de la vivienda en cada área de Londres y su distancia a puntos concretos de la ciudad. Su objetivo es determinar posibles lugares para vivir en un radio determinado de un lugar de trabajo.

MySociety, an NGO which builds websites that give people simple, tangible benefits in the civic and community aspects of their lives, came to Stamen with a remit to explore two fascinating datasets: median prices of homes throughout London, and the time it takes to travel from one place to another throughout the city.

Both of these datasets are fairly well understood, if not widely available for public consumption in graphic format. We thought that we could add the most value to people's experience of this material if we did two things: provided an exploratory (as opposed to search-based) way to navigate, and also combined the information into a set of interactive pieces that let you explore the various parameters on your own.

For example, you may have decided you want to spend £200k on a house, and live within 1/2 hour of your work, and it's simple enough to search for that information. But what if the results that come back aren't quite to your liking, and you can't find a neighborhood that meets those parameters? Normally, you'd have to go back to the beginning, twiddle your search terms one way or the other, and start again.

By introducing a set of sliders which control travel time as well as median house price displays, we can let you explore the data on your own terms. If you're willing to pay a bit more to live a little closer to work, for example, you can quickly adjust the sliders to reflect those choices, without having to go back to the beginning and start searching all over again.

We think this way of interacting with information—exploring as opposed to searching—has alot to recommend it as more and more data moves onto our screens and into our lives.


Ride Time Pittsburgh

http://www.leebyron.com/what/ridetime/

Aplicación para Iphone que coordina en tiempo real los horarios del transporte público en Pitsburgh con la decisión de salir de casa para dirigirnos hacía un lugar.

Ride Time is a web application and service for the iPhone to help you plan your time around your bus routes.

After a short user study, we determined that our target audience would be students and commuters who frequent the same bus routes on a regular basis. This focus made looking up new routes much less important than having a detailed view into common routes.

Ride Time just needs to know the addresses of the places you frequent: Home, School, Grocery. It then provides a personalized bus schedule where you can see what bus routes are available between two places and when they arrive next. Tap each route to see more information.

Ride Time makes it easy to switch between different locations and destinations, providing at a glance information to help you decide: “Should I leave now? Or do I have a minute for myself”.

Updating automatically every minute, you're always looking at the most current information. Ride Time even tells you when it's time to hurry!

Usaspending.gov

http://usaspending.gov/

Aplicación que permite explorar los presupuestos de la Administración Norteamericana y rastrear partidas de gasto y receptores de cada contrato en los distintos departamentos del Gobierno.

USAspending.gov is a new US governmental website designed in accordance to the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Transparency Act): it is a single searchable website, accessible by the public for free that includes for each Federal award:

  1. the name of the entity receiving the award;
  2. the amount of the award;
  3. information on the award including transaction type, funding agency, etc;
  4. the location of the entity receiving the award;
  5. a unique identifier of the entity receiving the award.

The data is largely gathered from the Federal Procurement Data System, which contains information about federal contracts, and the Federal Assistance Award Data System, which contains information about federal financial assistance such as grants, loans, insurance, and direct subsidies like Social Security. The underlying technology for USAspending.gov was developed by OMB Watch with the support of The Sunlight Foundation and is used on OMB Watch's website located at FedSpending.org.


Human Development

http://humandevelopment.weaintplastic.com/

Visualización Interactiva que permite explorar los indicadores de desarrollo de cada nación y observar su evolución a lo largo del tiempo.

The objective of the online visualization project Human's Development is to make important data, like the statistics about the different aspects of human development, readable for everyone. The intention was to develop an interactive and dynamic information-graphic which uncovers a global grievance causing the mismatch of upper-, middle-, and lower-classes, and raises the user's awareness for this issue.

Every year the UNPD (United Nations Development Programme) releases reports consisting of statistical information on different aspects of human development. The so-called "Human Development Reports" mainly focus on 3 dimensions which describe the makings of a successful human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. Each dimension is expressed by an index between 0 and 1, and combines applicable and concrete facts for each country, which is here visualized.

The project aims that lay people should be able to absorb, process and understand the data so that they are willing to take action on projects offered by GlobalLiving. The project was designed and developed by Roland Loesslein, also the person behind the meteorological data visualization project Synoptic.

Bibliografía


2008

Calendario

  • Lunes 23 de Junio: Introducción al Curso y a la problemática de la visualización. Descripción del sistema de evaluación y del sentido del curso.
  • Lunes 30 de Junio: Se introducen lenguajes de representación gráfica y se discuten ejemplo. Se da inicio del proyecto individual donde cada cual expone su pregunta y su posiblecorpus de datos.
  • Lunes 7 de Julio: Se presenta la metodología de investigación centrada en las personas
  • Lunes 14 de Julio: Revisión de proyectos individuales y formato de Wiki
  • Lunes 21 de Julio:
  • Lunes 28 de Julio:
  • Lunes 4 de Agosto:
  • Lunes 11 de Agosto:
  • Lunes 18 de Agosto:
  • Lunes 25 de Agosto:
  • Lunes 1 de Septiembre:

Alumnos

Tutoría